Environment

Lower CO2 Emissions

  • ET-DSP™ does not require onsite power production as it draws power off of the Alberta power grid
  • Virtually no emissions are created on site and/or directly by the process
  • Management estimates electricity usage of 75 kWh/bbl Alberta Environment estimates emissions associated with gas-fired electricity of 400 kg/mWh, suggesting 30 kg CO2/bbl of E-T's produced bitumen assuming 100% gas-fired electricity
  • SAGD steam is typically from gas-fired cogenerators resulting in higher emissions and necessitating an expensive carbon capture and monitoring system
  • Non-emitting sources of energy (ie. hydroelectric, wind farms, nuclear) can be purchased resulting in bitumen production with virtually no emissions
 
CO2 Emissions1
(kg/bbl)
Typical SAGD
56.9
Typical Integrated Mining
94.6
ET-DSP™ Direct/On-Site
0.0
ET-DSP™ Indirect @ Gas-Fired
30.0

Less Water Usage

  • ET-DSP™ lack of need for fresh water is important given increased regulations and environmental concerns
  • Upon extraction of the produced fluids, water is separated and re-injected into the reservoir
  • Re-injection of heated water is beneficial to the overall thermal efficiency as it requires less energy to increase the temperature to steam conditions
  • SAGD uses 17%2 more water
  • Water softening, treating water and boiling water can be a significant challenge to SAGD operators
  • Integrated mining uses 90%-330% more water
  • ET-DSP™ does not result in the creation of tailings ponds

Water Usage Comparison

Extraction Process
Total Water Usage3
(bbl/bbl)
% Higher then ET-DSP™
Typical SAGD
1.23
17%
Typical Integrated Mining
2.00 - 4.50
90% - 329%
ET-DSP™
1/05
-

Source: TD Newcrest and Alberta Energy

Minimal and Temporary Surface Disturbance

  • Analogous to a logging operation
  • Surface disturbance with ET-DSP™ drilling is far less than mining, is aerially limited at any one time, and restoration of a drilled area can begin after 3 years from the start of initial activity (vs. 9-12 years with SAGD and decades with mining)
  • Top soil is not removed in areas drilled with ET-DSP™ (a requirement for SAGD well pads)
  • Given ET-DSP™ is pressure-neutral there is no possibility for a steam blow-out

1 Based on information from the Specified Gas Emitters Regulation received in the second half of 2007 by Alberta Environment (non-integrated mining not available)

2 ET-DSP™ and SAGD extraction processes are per barrel of bitumen; integrated mining is per barrel of SCO

3 Assuming 90% or more of the SAGD water usage is recycled ? water usage would be significantly higher if the water is not recycled